Hepatitis B, Symptoms , Causes, and how it spread

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The virus is passed from person to person through blood, semen or other body fluids

Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer. It can be fatal if it isn’t treated.

Symptoms

Abdominal pain
Dark urine
Fever
Joint pain
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness and fatigue
Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)

How hepatitis B is spread

1. Mother to their newborn baby, particularly in countries where the infection is common

2having a tattoo, body piercing, or medical or dental treatment in an unhygienic environment with unsterilised equipmen

3.Accidental needle sticks. Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood.

4.injecting drugs and sharing needles and other drug
equipment, such as spoons and filters

5.sharing toothbrushes or razors contaminated with infected blood

6.having a blood transfusion in a country where blood isn’t tested for hepatitis B

7.The blood of someone with hepatitis B getting into an open wound, cut, or scratch – in rare cases, being bitten by someone with hepatitis B can also spread the infection

Types

Acute vs. chronic hepatitis B

Hepatitis B infection may be either short-lived (acute) or long lasting (chronic).

Acute hepatitis B infection lasts less than six months. Your immune system likely can clear acute hepatitis B from your body, and you should recover completely within a few months.

Most people who acquire hepatitis B as adults have an acute infection, but it can lead to chronic infection.

Chronic hepatitis B infection lasts six months or longer. When your immune system can’t fight off the acute infection, hepatitis B infection may last a lifetime, possibly leading to serious illnesses such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The younger you are when you get hepatitis B — particularly newborns or children younger than 5 — the higher your risk the infection becoming chronic. Chronic infection may go undetected for decades until a person becomes seriously ill from liver disease

High-risk areas

Hepatitis B is found throughout the world, but is particularly common in:
sub-Saharan Africa
east and southeast Asia
the Pacific Islands
parts of South America
southern parts of eastern and central Europe
the Middle East
the Indian subcontinent

Complications

They are:

Scarring of the liver (cirrhosis).

The inflammation associated with a hepatitis B infection can lead to extensive liver scarring (cirrhosis), which may impair the liver’s ability to function.

Liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B infection have an increased risk of liver cancer.

Liver failure. Acute liver failure is a condition in which the vital functions of the liver shut down. When that occurs, a liver transplant is necessary to sustain life.

Other conditions. People with chronic hepatitis B may have kidney disease, inflammation of blood vessels or anemia.

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