Causes, symptoms and Complications of High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures.You probably have high blood pressure (hypertension) if your blood pressure readings are consistently 140 over 90, or higher, over a number of weeks.

Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.

High blood pressure generally develops over many years, and it affects nearly everyone eventually. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your doctor to control it.

What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?

High blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels.so the only way to know if you have high blood pressure is to have yours measured. However, a single high reading does not necessarily mean you have high blood pressure.

What causes high blood pressure?

1 your lifestyle can affect your risk of developing it
2.you eat too much salt;
3 you don’t eat enough fruit and vegetables;
4 you are not active enough;
5 you are overweight; or
6 you drink too much alcohol.

7 Age: as you get older, the effects of an unhealthy lifestyle can build up and your blood pressure can increase.
8 Ethnic origin: people from African-Caribbean and South Asian communities are at greater risk than other people of high blood pressure.
9 Family history: you are at greater risk if other members of your family have, or have had, high blood pressure.

Some people may have high blood pressure that is linked to another medical condition, such as kidney problems. For these people treating the medical problem may lower their blood pressure back to normal.

Various conditions and medications can lead to secondary hypertension, including:

Obstructive sleep apnea
Kidney problems
Adrenal gland tumors
Thyroid problems
Certain defects in blood vessels you’re born with (congenital)
Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs
Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines
Alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use

 Types of high blood pressure.

Primary (essential) hypertension

Secondary hypertension

Complications

Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to:
1. Heart attack or stroke
2. Aneurysm. Increased blood pressure can cause your blood vessels to weaken and bulge, forming an aneurysm.
3. Heart failure.
4. Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys.
5. Thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes..
6. Metabolic syndrome. This syndrome is a cluster of disorders of your body’s metabolism, including increased waist
7. Trouble with memory or understanding.

Tests and diagnosis

Blood pressure measurements fall into four general categories:

Normal blood pressure. Your blood pressure is normal if it’s below 120/80 mm Hg.

Prehypertension. Prehypertension is a systolic pressure ranging from 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 80 to 89 mm Hg. Prehypertension tends to get worse over time.

Stage 1 hypertension. Stage 1 hypertension is a systolic pressure ranging from 140 to 159 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 90 to 99 mm Hg.

Stage 2 hypertension. More severe hypertension, stage 2 hypertension is a systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic pressure of 100 mm Hg or higher.

Blood pressure treatment goals

*Although 120/80 mm Hg or lower is the ideal blood pressure goal, doctors are unsure if you need treatment (medications) to reach that level.

Less than150/90 mm Hg If you’re a healthy adult age 60 or older

Less than140/90 mm Hg If you’re a healthy adult younger than age 60

Less than140/90 mm Hg If you have chronic kidney disease, diabetes or coronary artery disease or are at high risk of coronary artery disease

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